Writers and filmmakers hoping to hoodwink their fans with plot twists have long known what cognitive scientists know: All of us have blind spots in the way we assess the world. We get distracted. We forget how we know things. We see patterns that aren't there. Because these blind spots are wired into the brain, they act in ways that are predictable — so predictable that storytellers from Sophocles to M. Night Shyamalan have used them to lead us astray.
In recent years, some scientists have begun to ask, can stories serve as a kind of brain scan? If a plot twist works by exploiting our biases and mental shortcuts, can observing the mechanics of a good story reveal something important about the contours of the mind?"
"Stories are a kind of magic trick," says Case Western Reserve University's professor Vera Tobin. "When we dissect them, we can discover very, very reliable aspects of those tricks that turn out to be important clues about the way that people think."
But stories aren't just found in books or plays or clever plot twists in movies. They can also be found in the stuff we buy.
In the second half of the episode, we talk to professor of marketing Americus Reed. Today, he teaches at the University of Pennsylvania. But when he was 17, he was the new kid — one of a handful of black students bused to a predominantly white school. He wanted to be accepted. So he came up with a plan: He would become a social chameleon.
"A brand is so much more than a tagline or a logo," he says. "It is more of a meaning system."
This week on Hidden Brain, the stories we tell — and how they connect to our identities.
A few of the storyteller's favorite biases:
"Cognitive bias and the poetics of surprise," by Vera Tobin in Language and Literature
"The Curse of Knowledge in Reasoning About False Beliefs," by Susan A.J. Birch and Paul Bloom in Psychological Science
"Attention and awareness in stage magic: turning tricks into research," by Stephen L. Macknik, Mac King, James Randi, Apollo Robbins, Teller, John Thompson, and Susana Martinez-Conde in Nature Reviews Neuroscience
"Tip of the Hat, Wag of the Finger: How Moral Decoupling Enables Consumers to Admire and Admonish," by Amit Bhattacharjee, Jonathan Z. Berman, and Americus Reed, II in Journal of Consumer Research, 2013.
"Identity-based consumer behavior," by Americus Reed, II, Mark R. Forehand, Stefano Puntoni, and Luk Warlop in International Journal of Research in Marketing, 2012.
"Performance Brand Placebos: How Brands Improve Performance and Consumers Take the Credit," by Aaron Garvey, Frank Germann, and Lisa Bolton in Advances in Consumer Research, 2015.
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