Updated at 12:11 p.m. ET
Texas is the latest state to be hit with a cyberattack, with state officials confirming this week that computer systems in 23 municipalities have been infiltrated by hackers demanding a ransom.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation and state cybersecurity experts are examining the ongoing breach, which began Friday morning and has affected mostly smaller local governments. Officials have not disclosed which specific places are affected.
Investigators have also not yet identified who or what is behind the attack that took the systems offline, but the Texas Department of Information Resources says the evidence so far points to "one single threat actor."
Elliott Sprehe, a spokesman for the department, said he was "not aware" of any of the cities having paid the undisclosed ransom sought by hackers. He said the areas impacted are predominantly rural.
Two cities so far have come forward to say their computer systems were affected. Officials in Borger in the Texas Panhandle, said the attack has affected city business and financial operations. Birth and death certificates are not available online, and the city can't accept utility payments from any of its 13,25o residents. "Responders have not yet established a time-frame for when full, normal operations will be restored," city officials said.
Keene, Texas, a city of some 6,100 people outside Fort Worth, was also hit, officials announced. The city's government is also unable to process utility payments.
Experts say that while government agencies have increasingly been hit by cyberattacks, simultaneously targeting nearly two dozen cities represents a new kind of cyberassault.
"What's unique about this attack and something we hadn't seen before is how coordinated attack this attack is," said threat intelligence analyst Allan Liska. "It does present a new front in the ransomware attack," he said. "It absolutely is the largest coordinated attack we've seen."
Liska's research firm, Recorded Future, has found that ransomware attacks aimed at state and local government have been on the rise, finding at least 169 examples of hackers breaking into government computer systems since 2013. There have been more than 60 already this year, he said.
The hacker bait tends to come in the form of a seemingly benign email with links or attachments that, once opened, can infect a system. There are other popular ways of tapping into government networks, Liska said, like through remote desktop systems, which can be vulnerable to hackers.
While the attackers tend to be anonymous and their locations undisclosed, Liska said his research has found that few are based in the U.S. Many, he said, are breaching local government computer systems from operations based in parts of Eastern Europe or Russia.
And sometimes local governments see no other option to restoring their crippled networks than paying a ransom demanded by hackers. In Lake City, Fla., a town of about 12,000 residents, officials paid $460,000 in the form of bitcoin, the preferred payment method among cybercriminals.
"They turned off the servers. They literally went room through room through city hall, unplugging people's networks cables and turning off all the computers," Mike Lee, a sergeant with the Lake City Police Department, told NPR in July.
The ransom was paid by insurance, but taxpayers were still on the hook for a $10,000 deductible.
The Recorded Future study found that about 17% of local agencies hit with ransomware viruses paid up, a practice federal law enforcement officials discourage, saying it incentivizes cybercriminals to keep engaging in the activity.
Liska said in cities he has worked with that have been preyed upon by hackers, there are instances in which ponying up for the return of data is the only viable option.
"Sometimes the reality of the situation may call for it," he said. "If the backups aren't working or if the bad guys have encrypted your backups, then unfortunately that's what you're left with."
Individuals, businesses and institutions such as hospitals have been targeted by ransomware attacks for years. With the recent attacks on state and city government, local officials are rushing to secure their computer systems, holding new training and backing up their servers, Liska said. But in smaller, cash-strapped localities, there could be challenges to building a security defense.
In Texas, state authorities have not yet disclosed where exactly the attacks were based or how many computers have been swept up in the breach, meaning it is not yet known what services or data might have been compromised.
"Hitting 23 towns at once was bad, but we don't know how much damage was done," Liska said. "One computer in each town versus 100 computers in each town is a big difference."
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